To improve the rational use of non-renewable resources in road engineering, establish a life-cycle cost assessment method for the comprehensive benefits of maintenance measures, and promote the sustainable development of transportation engineering infrastructure. Based on the theory of Life-Cycle Cost Assessment (LCCA), this paper introduced an evaluation indicator of resource scarcity and established a project-level resource scarcity evaluation system for road materials from three dimensions: stock scarcity, import scarcity, and technology scarcity. The indicator was quantified as a monetary equivalent and included in the life-cycle cost list. Subsequently, relying on the data from the pavement maintenance management system in Jiangsu Province, the comprehensive benefits of three categories of maintenance measures, including recycling, milling and repaving, and overlaying, were quantitatively analyzed in terms of resource scarcity, economic benefits, and performance development. The results showed that, considering resource scarcity, recycling measures had a high utilization rate of old materials and excellent resource rationality. ECA-10 thin overlaying measures had thin treatment thickness and low consumption of materials, which could save about 50% of resources compared to ordinary overlaying measures. Direct disposal of milling waste and improper selection of stone sources would result in additional equivalent costs of 10-20%. Considering comprehensive benefits, the cost of each maintenance scheme related to construction characteristics (such as construction period, construction level, process advancement, etc.) was close to 60%, with indirect economic losses between users accounting for over 30%, which was directly determined by the construction period. Finally, this study suggests selecting material sources and destinations carefully to reduce the waste of non-renewable resources, optimizing maintenance construction process to reduce indirect economic losses to users, improving construction level to decline direct fuel consumption of users, and making scientific maintenance decisions to decrease government costs.